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CONSTRUCTS/FACTOR RELEVANT QUESTION CASE STUDY APPLICATION Perceived Threat (Susceptibility) What is the health problem and how susceptible do they consider themselves to be to the risk? Perceived...

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CONSTRUCTS/FACTOR
    RELEVANT QUESTION
    CASE STUDY APPLICATION
    Perceived Threat (Susceptibility)
    What is the health problem and how susceptible do they consider themselves to be to the risk?
    
    Perceived Severity
    How seriously do they consider the health problem- what are the implications?
    
    Perceived Benefit
    What behavioral changes are proposed and what is the benefit in changing behavior.
    
    Perceived Ba
iers
    What are their obstacles to changing the behavior
    
    Self-efficacy
    How successful do they consider the behavior change would be?
    
    Cue to Action
    
    
HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Application of Theory
HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Application of Theory
Case One: Health Belief Model
· Woman (36 years), home-maker, ma
ied with six children
· She has visited her GP to get a repeat prescription of a contraceptive pill
· She comments that she has high stress levels and finds she spends all day and night looking after the children.
· She smokes a packet of low tar cigarettes each day, her husband also smokes
· Her Father died of secondary cancer related to an initial lung cancer at age 65 years.
Case Two: Health Belief Model
· Male (42 years), executive, ma
ied with two adolescent children
· He has visited his GP on his wife’s insistence that he has a general check-up
· He is significantly overweight and blames this on his regular long lunches, long hours and no time to exercise
· The GP finds he has high blood pressure and (from blood analysis) high cholesterol
· Brother has had a recent heart attack and required a triple bypass – ‘he looks great’
Case Three: Theory of Planned Behavior
· Mary, age 42 years has been diagnosed with pre-diabetes and an increase BMI, the GP recommends a change in diet and increase regular exercise.
· Mary enjoys her sedimentary lifestyle and her diet of fast food, now she has the knowledge about the relationship of her life-style and her recent diagnosis has changed her attitude.
· Her family are all very busy with working several job and fulltime school. They do not like to cook and enjoy eating fast food, especially when they entertain with their friends.
· Mary is concerned about her diagnosis and shared the news with her family, she believes she can follow the GP’s recommendations and intends to make changes with her family.
Case Four: Health Belief Model
· Male (24 years), office worker single
· He has visited his BP to get a certificate for absence from work due to a recu
ing chest infection
· He blames his regular late nights, smoking and heavy drinking on his recu
ing illness
· He plays football and cricket regularly and describes himself as a ‘social’ smoker and drinker at club events
· His Father (the Son describes him as a heavy drinker and smoker) has kidney stones has been treated for early emphysema
Instructions: Complete the application column with a scenario of your choice that co
esponds to the Stages of Change.
TRANSTHEORECTICAL THEORY/STAGES OF CHANGE – Application of Theory
    STAGE OF CHANGE
    Issue
    APPLICATION
    Pre-contemplation
    Awareness-raising
    
    Contemplation
    Recognition of the benefits of change
    
    Preparation or Determination
    Identification of ba
iers
    
    Action
    Program of Change
    
    Maintenance
    Follow-up
    
    Relapse
    
    
THEORY OF PLANNED BEAHVIOR – Application of Theory
    CONSTRUCTS/FACTOR
    RELEVANT QUESTION
    CASE STUDY APPLICATION
    Attitudes
    What is the health problem and what is the attitude towards the health issue Mary consider to be the risk?
    
    Subjective norms
    How does the behavior of the family and friends impact the health problem- what are the implications?
    
    Perceived Behavioral Control
    What behavioral changes are proposed and how easy or difficult does Mary believe it will be to successfully perform the new behavior(s).
    
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY - Review
    CONSTRUCTS
    DESCRIPTION
    Reciprocal Determinism
    This is the central concept of SCT. This refers to the dynamic and reciprocal interaction of person (individual with a set of learned experiences), environment (external social context), and behavior (responses to stimuli to achieve goals).
    Behavioral Capability
    This refers to a person's actual ability to perform a behavior through essential knowledge and skills. In order to successfully perform a behavior, a person must know what to do and how to do it. People learn from the consequences of their behavior, which also affects the environment in which they live.
    Modeling/ Observational Learning
    This asserts that people can witness and observe a behavior conducted by others, and then reproduce those actions. This is often exhibited through "modeling" of behaviors. If individuals see successful demonstration of a behavior, they can also complete the behavior successfully.
    Reinforcements
    This refers to the internal or external responses to a person's behavior that affect the likelihood of continuing or discontinuing the behavior. Reinforcements can be self-initiated or in the environment, and reinforcements can be positive or negative. This is the construct of SCT that most closely ties to the reciprocal relationship between behavior and environment.
    Expectations
    This refers to the anticipated consequences of a person's behavior. Outcome expectations can be health-related or not health-related. People anticipate the consequences of their actions before engaging in the behavior, and these anticipated consequences can influence successful completion of the behavior. Expectations derive largely from previous experience. While expectancies also derive from previous experience, expectancies focus on the value that is placed on the outcome and are subjective to the individual.
    Self-efficacy
    This refers to the level of a person's confidence in his or her ability to successfully perform a behavior. Self-efficacy is unique to SCT although other theories have added this construct at later dates, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior. Self-efficacy is influenced by a person's specific capabilities and other individual factors, as well as by environmental factors (ba
iers and facilitators).
Answered Same Day Jun 07, 2021

Solution

Tanaya answered on Jun 09 2021
152 Votes
HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Application of Theory
    CONSTRUCTS/FACTOR
    RELEVANT QUESTION
    CASE STUDY APPLICATION
    Perceived Threat (Susceptibility)
    What is the health problem and how susceptible do they consider themselves to be to the risk?
    In all the cases, the health problem was excessive smoking and alcohol consumption that have affected negatively on the health condition of the individual. It is important to implement positive changes in their behavior are required so that future risk can be avoided. For instance, in the case of case 1, the woman 36 years is aware that her excessive smoking has accelerated her stress. Moreover, there is a chance she might suffer from secondary cancer like her father due to her smoking habit.
    Perceived Severity
    How seriously do they consider the health problem- what are the implications?
    Perceived severity of an individual is determined by the ability of the individual to ensure the health problem and its related consequences are subjectively assessed (Conner & Norman, 2017). Hence, individuals who are more carefully related to the health problem they indulge more seriously in preventing health challenges. For instance, in case 3, Mary was more concerned about her health when her GP reported that she showed symptoms of pre-diabetes and high BMI. This realization of her health condition will allow her to take the necessary action to improve her health condition.
    Perceived Benefit
    What behavioral changes are proposed and what is the benefit in changing behavior.
    In the case of case 3, Mary was proposed to exercise and have a healthier diet. According to Mary, she used to lead a sedentary life and consumed fast food. To improve her BMI and have an overall healthier lifestyle, she needs to adopt behavioral changes implemented in her regular life. This will also require diet changes to have a perceived benefit.
    Perceived Ba
iers
    What are their obstacles to changing the behavior
    The obstacles in the cited case are their stressful lives and long hours of office work that forces them to lead a life, which does not include much physical exercise. For instance, in case 1, woman 36 years who has six children and is on stress because she spends her whole day taking café of her children. Her immense stress has pushed her in excessive smoking that will eventually lay impact on her heart.
    Self-efficacy
    How successful do they consider the behavior change would be?
    With awareness, it is also crucial that the individual adopt the changes in his or her lifestyle. This will help in the improvement of health status. In the provided case studies, each of the individuals had a family history of mo
idities. Like in the case of Case 1, the woman’s father died of secondary lung cancer. In addition, it is important for her to stop smoking and adopt a healthier lifestyle through proper diet and exercise. This will not only decrease the chance of her health getting impacted but also protect her children from the negative impact of smoking.
    Cue to Action
    
    This includes internal or external health-promoting activities and engagement that will promote change in the behavior. This can be achieved through following a modified health belief system for the cessation of smoking amongst men and women. This will include behavioral decision theory as well as decision analysis for regaining positive health behavio
Case One: Health Belief Model
· Woman (36 years), home-maker, ma
ied with six children
· She has visited her GP to get a repeat prescription of a contraceptive pill
· She comments that she has high stress levels and finds she spends all day and night looking after the children.
· She smokes a packet of low tar cigarettes each day, her husband also smokes
· Her Father died of secondary cancer related to an initial lung cancer at age 65 years.
Case Two: Health Belief Model
· Male (42 years), executive, ma
ied with two adolescent children
· He has visited his GP on his wife’s insistence that he has a general check-up
· He is significantly overweight and blames this on his regular long lunches, long hours and no time to exercise
· The GP finds he has high blood pressure and (from blood analysis) high cholesterol
· Brother has had a recent heart attack...
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