Dr answered on
Apr 12 2020
C. Range of Different Operating System including the purpose, Use and Hardware Requirements
The different ranges of the operating system with purpose, use and hardware requirements are presented in following table.
Management of hardware, memory, files, disk, devices and peripherals
Multitasking, multiprocessing and multithreaded applications
Computer Hardware – RAM, Disk, Processor, Optical Drive etc
Management of hardware, memory, files, disk, devices and peripherals and GUI interface for users
Multitasking, Multiprocessing and multithreading applications
Computer Hardware – RAM, Disk, Processor, Optical Drive etc
Mobile based device Operating system
Provides user interface with mobile devices
Hardware – Mobile device such as smart phone, tablet pc, palm top
Apple device operating system
Provides the user interface for the Apple device users
Apple mobile phone, tablet, Laptop PC
Red hat Enterprise Linux
Provides the multi-user, multi-processing and multi-tasking operating system interface to users and servers
Server based operating system supported by this operating system for web services, LAN and other server services to enterprise
Desktop, Server, Computer hardware and perferals.
D. Key Features of Different Operating Systems
Operating system is a system software that provides the interface between hardware and user applications. In simple words an operating system manages, governs and controls the hardware such as processing unit, memory, I/O devices of the computer system and provides the user interface to interact with these hardware through integrated applications.
The architecture of an operating system is layered system integration of operating system modules and Program Interface.
Kernel : A kernel is heart of an operating system. It is placed between the operating system li
ary modules and hardware of computer system and provides the interface between hardware and user shell. A kernel of an operating system performs all the functions and processes connected with the computer system such as disks, memories, processor, I/O devices through the device drivers.
File System : A file system is an operating system module that manages, and controls the files on disks. It is in a form of data structure managed by the file manager of an operating system. Various functions such as read, write, delete and organization of the files on disks are managed by the file manager under the file system of an operating system.
Shell : A shell is a user interface of an operating system. User interacts with the computer system by providing commands either through command line interface or Graphical User Interface by the help of shell of an operating system. In some of the operating system there are so many types of shell available for the user. Shell is also called an interface for the user with the operating system Kernel.
API: Application Program Interface is an interface that provides the interface to the users of computer system to execute the applications through the shell of an operating system. Operating system manages files, disks, memories, processor for application program through the kernel, file system, memory and disk manager and processor. It also provides the interface to the computer user to develop the application programs.
Review of Operating System Functions
An operating system do many functions and services with respect to the operation of the computer system. The review of functions and services of the operating system are as follows.
User Interface: An user interface to the user of the computer system is provided by the operating system. An user interface is also a shell of an operating system. This user interface provides the interface in the form of command line or graphical to the users to execute the commands and functions of the applications. This user interface is a
idge between the computer operating system and user. All the commands and applications are executed through the help of the user interface.
Memory Management: Operating system has the li
ary modules that manages the memory of computer system. Basically, there are two categories of memories associated with the computer. These two are internal memory like RAM and ROM and external memories such as disks, tapes, flash memories. All these memories are managed by the operating system memory managers available with the operating system li
ary after the kernel of an operating system. Direct memory access is fast memory transfer interface where processor is not involved. For example, transfer of files from disk to tape drive. In this direct memory access DMA controller is used by operating system to manage and control the direct memory access.
File Manager : A file manager is also a part of the operating system li
ary module to manage the files and file systems. The file organization and maintenance of files for reading, writing are managed by the file manager of file system.
E. Relationship between hardware and network address
The network is a collection of interconnected computer workstations to share the resources like data, files and processing. The main relation between the hardware and network address is that each hardware such as computer workstation is identified by a network address such as 32 bit IPV4 or 128 bit IPV6 addresses and 48 bit Physical or MAC address.
A network protocol is also an agent that creates the rules and regulations to use the applications and hardware of the computer system connected via a network such as Local Area Network or Wide Area Network like Internet. The details of various protocols with their functionalities are as follows.
HTTP : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is an application layer protocol of TCP/IP protocol suite. The role of this protocol is to provide the interface to access the web resources of the web server of the Internet by a computer workstation connected through Internet. This protocol converts the hyper text into plain text in web
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is also an application layer protocol of TCP/IP protocol suite. The mail role of this protocol is to provide the communication of the email from user computer to mail server connected through the Internet. The format of the message, reading and transfer of the email message from user email box to email server etc are managed and controlled by this SMTP protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
TCP : Transmission Control Protocol is an transport layer connection oriented reliable protocol of TCP/IP protocol suite. The role of this protocol is provide the connection oriented and reliable data transmission interface between two entities (Network Nodes) in Internet. Other functions of TCP is to maintain quality of service, multiplexing of connection at port level, guarantees the delivery of packets from source to destination, establishment of virtual circuit between two end entities in Internet etc.
UDP: User Datagram is also a transport layer protocol of TCP/IP protocol suite. This is connectionless and unreliable transport layer protocol. The main role of this protocol is to provide the...