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BIOL121 ASSIGNMENT 3: Written assessment Scenario – Elastigirl Elastigirl is a 30-year-old female, who has presented to the antenatal clinic for a routine prenatal visit. She has generally felt...

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BIOL121 ASSIGNMENT 3: Written assessment




Scenario – Elastigirl



Elastigirl is a 30-year-old female, who has presented to the antenatal clinic for a routine prenatal visit. She has generally felt very well throughout her pregnancy and exercised regularly but is starting to feel more and more tired as her pregnancy progresses. Elastigirl reports she has been suffering from severe headaches over the last week or so and has been taking paracetamol tablets to dull the pain. She also reports some discomfort in her upper abdomen after eating and drinking and swelling in her feet and ankles. Elastigirl is



vegan and, although she considers her fluid and caloric intake to be adequate, admits that she probably isn’t careful enough when ensuring she eats enough high calcium foods.



A physical examination and urinalysis were conducted. Results below.




Physical examination:



Height 164 cm Weight 63 kg



Appearance Clean, neat appearance, mild oedema in feet and ankles




Pregnancy status 34 weeks pregnant



Temperature 36.2◦C



Blood work Blood group: Fasting blood glucose = 6 mmol/L



BP 150/95 mm Hg. Respiratory rate 22 bpm



Diet Vegan, low calcium intake.



Past patient history Non-smoker. Regular check-ups during pregnancy. All previous screenings of blood, urine, and blood pressure within normal ranges. Exercises regularly.



Social status Works as a customer assistant and lives with her husband and their daughter,



Violet.




Urinalysis:



Urobilinogen 0.4 mg/dL



pH 6.5



Specific Gravity 1.015




All topics and their key points listed below must be discussed in your essay





Topic 1: Reproduction (10 marks total)




A simple pregnancy test using Elastigirl’s urine helped to confirm her pregnancy. Which hormone is detected by a typical home pregnancy test? Discuss the role of this hormone in pregnancy. (5 marks)



Considering Elastigirl’s circumstances, describe the future role of oxytocin on uterine tissue during childbirth. (5 marks)





Topic 2: Respiratory system (5 marks total)




Describe the changes in volume and pressure that will be occurring in Elastigirl’s chest cavity to achieve inhalation while she is sitting in the examination room. Explain why these changes are occurring, and the effect upon airflow. (5 marks)





Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism (8 marks total)




Elastigirl enjoyed her favourite tofu scramble for breakfast today. Unfortunately, painful indigestion meant she had to promptly follow her meal with a couple of Mylanta® chewable tablets. Discuss how Mylanta would affect digestion of the protein in Elastigirl’s meal. (4.5 marks)



State the hormone that will be MOST active in maintaining Elastigirl’s blood calcium levels if adequate calcium is not obtained from her diet. Explain your answer. (3.5 marks)





Topic 4: Pharmacology (7 marks total)




The antenatal nurse mentions to Elastigirl that the doctor might prescribe her Dithiazide tablets, which act as a diuretic.



Discuss the route of administration of Dithiazide, where the drug is likely to be absorbed after administration, and its likely bioavailability. Justify your response by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first pass. (4 marks)



What effect will the thiazide have on other drugs that Elastigirl may take, such as paracetamol? In your answer, relate to the mechanism of action of thiazide. (3 marks)

Answered 2 days After May 25, 2023

Solution

Dipali answered on May 27 2023
6 Votes
WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT        6
WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT
Table of contents
Introduction    3
Topic 1: Reproduction    3
Topic 2: Respiratory system    4
Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism    5
Topic 4: Pharmacology    6
Conclusion    6
References    8
Introduction
The antenatal clinic has received complaints from pregnant Elastigirl, 30, about her increased tiredness, excruciating headaches, upper abdominal discomfort, and swelling in her feet and ankles. To ensure the health of Elastigirl and her unborn child, you must evaluate her symptoms as her healthcare practitioner and take appropriate action. Elastigirl's health will be covered in depth in this written exam, including issues with reproduction, the respiratory system, digestion and metabolism, and pharmacology. We can learn more about the physiological modifications Elastigirl's body undergoes during pregnancy and their potential ramifications by investigating these areas. In this evaluation, we will look at the function of hormones like oxytocin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in pregnancy and labour. Along with these topics, we'll talk about how Elastigirl's chest cavity varies in volume and pressure when she
eathes in, how Mylanta affects how well she digests protein, and how Dithiazide, a diuretic, affects the rest of her medicine regimen. By examining and discussing these subjects, we hope to offer thorough insights into Elastigirl's health issues and provide direction for effective treatments to support her wellbeing during this crucial time. 
Topic 1: Reproduction 
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a pregnancy hormone, is typically found in urine during a home pregnancy test. The growing placenta creates this hormone 6–8 days after fertilisation, just after implantation. The pregnancy test can detect hCG since it is secreted into the bloodstream and eventually eliminated in the urine. Pregnancy is confirmed by the presence of hCG in the urine. During pregnancy, hCG is essential for promoting the foetus' growth (Studer et al., 2022). It supports the ovary's corpus luteum, which produces progesterone throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. Progesterone is necessary for the uterine lining to remain intact, to stop menstruation, and to assist the implantation and growth of the em
yo. In addition, hCG encourages the placenta to produce more oestrogen and progesterone, creating a favourable environment for foetal growth and development. In order to stop the immune system from rejecting the foetus, hCG also helps control it. A crucial role is played by the hormone oxytocin during childbirth. In Elastigirl's case, the pituitary gland will release oxytocin to start and intensify uterine contractions during labor. Oxytocin is released more frequently as labour goes on, which causes contractions to become stronger and more frequent (Frances-He
ero et al., 2022). In order to aid in the release of milk from the mammary glands during
eastfeeding, oxytocin also plays a part in triggering the letdown reflex. It increases mother-newborn bonding and can strengthen emotions of connection and care. 
Topic 2: Respiratory system 
The following volume and pressure changes in Elastigirl's chest cavity happen during inhalation:  
· The diaphragm...
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