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Assignment: Exercises : Explain the pathogenesis of celiac’s disease Analyze the pathophysiology Crohn’s disease and relate genetic issues Differentiate between hepatitis A, B, C, and viral hepatitis...

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Assignment:

Exercises:

  • Explain the pathogenesis of celiac’s disease
  • Analyze the pathophysiology Crohn’s disease and relate genetic issues
  • Differentiate between hepatitis A, B, C, and viral hepatitis
  • Elaborate on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of pancreatic cancer
Answered Same Day Jul 01, 2020

Solution

Anju Lata answered on Jul 03 2020
135 Votes
Advanced Pathophysiology 1
Advanced Pathophysiology
Student Name:_____________
University:_______________
Submitted to:_______________
Date:__________________
    
Introduction
The paper elaborates the four concepts: Pathogenesis of Celiac Disease, Pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease, Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of pancreatic cancer and Difference between Hepatitis A, B, C and Viral Hepatitis.
Pathogenesis of Celiac’s Disease
Pathogenesis of Celiac’s Disease involves the interaction between genetic, environmental and immunological factors (De Re et al,2017).
Environmental Factors: The disease activating protein named ‘Gluten’ in wheat, barley, and rye are required for the activation of Celiac’s disease. High concentration of proline and glutamine makes them difficult to be digestible by the proteolytic enzymes in the intestine. It increases the presence of peptides in the intestine which may cause pancreatic dysfunction and epithelial cell border injury.
Genetic Factors: Celiac Disease is associated with HLA class II genes which map to DQ2 and DQ8 locii. The heterodimer DQ2 makes the patients susceptible to celiac disease and is present in more than 95% of patients. The DQ8 heterodimer is present in rest 5-10% of the patients. The countries like Japan, where the DQ alleles are rarely found, the Celiac Disease is also rare in prevalence. These DQ2 and DQ8 heterodimers found on the surface of antigen presenting cells bind to the gluten peptides. The HLA class II genes found on the surface of antigen presenting cells bind to the foreign peptides. DQ2 and DQ8 bind to the peptides of gluten when they contain deamidated residues of glutamine (De Re et al,2017).
The pathogenesis mainly involves three sequential steps:
1. Luminal Mucosal Events: Genetically Susceptible person intakes the gluten. Due to high proline content, the gluten is not digested completely and large undigested gluten peptides remain intact. Crossing the epithelial ba
ier these peptides reach lamina propria and come in contact with antigen presenting cells which represent DQ2 and DQ8, and tissue transglutaminase.
2. T-cells Activation: The antigen presenting cells present these peptides to the DQ2 and DQ8 restricted T...
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