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Assignment XXXXXXXXXXwords) Please provide references, separately). This is two different parts so need to be done separately. Discuss the pathophysiology of Asthma and link to the clinical...

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Assignment XXXXXXXXXXwords) Please provide references, separately). This is two different parts so need to be done separately.

Discuss the pathophysiology of Asthma and link to the clinical manifestations of Zachy's presentation. Include the pathophysiology and clinical manifestation of Zachy's Asthma.

You must include a succinct introduction and conclusion, reference using APA style, use your prescribed texts and at least 8 peer-reviewed sources.

Assignment XXXXXXXXXXwords)

Discuss the pharmacological management of Zachy's Asthma, including the pharmacodynamics of these medications. Link your discussion to the relevant pathophysiology of Asthma.

Discuss the prioritised care for Zachy, for the first 24 hours of his admission. Think holistically and include a nursing care plan, relevant assessments, key interdisciplinary roles towards his care and the need for patient education.

You must include a succinct introduction and conclusion, reference using APA style, use your prescribed texts and at least 8 peer-reviewed sources.

Answered Same Day Apr 09, 2020


Anju Lata answered on Apr 14 2020
128 Votes
Running Head: CASE STUDY-ASTHMA         
Pathophysiology of Asthma and Clinical Manifestations of Zachy
The assignment is about a case study of Zachy, an asthma patient who is a 6 year old boy suffering from
eathlessness and coughing with running nose. This paper illustrates the clinical manifestations of Zachy and also the Pathophysiology of Asthma, in general.
Pathophysiology of Asthma
Source: https:
Asthma can be defined as a syndrome distinguished by the obstruction of airflow. The symptoms include
eathlessness, coughing, chest tightness, and wheezing. Mainly the disease has been prevalent in 15% children and 12% mature individuals (Mishra, 2015). The major risk factors associated with Asthma can be categorized into two groups: Endogenous factors and Environmental Factors. The endogenous factors can be of different types namely Obesity, Hyper-responsiveness of Airways, Atopy, some viral infections or genetic susceptibility. The environmental factors may involve indoor and outdoor allergens (air pollution, dust, pollen, spores, cockroaches and pet furs), passive smoking, occupational sensitizers, and respiratory infections(Busk et al,2013).
The Asthma can be of four types: Atopic Asthma, Drug Induced, Exercise Induced, Occupational, and Non atopic Asthma (Mishra, 2015).
When the airways swell up, the space inside them gets na
ower and create problems in
eathing. In critical conditions, the exertion results into asthmatic attacks known as exace
ations. The allergens widespread in the atmosphere degrade the condition even more, resulting into severe
eathlessness and suffocation (Adkinson et al, 2013). The diagram below shows the changes in Bronchiolar walls during asthma.
Source: https:
The patient develops long term inflammation of lower
onchioles, basement mem
ane thickens, epithelium of the lumen shreds off, metaplasia of goblet cells occurs, thickening and hypertrophy of smooth muscles takes place, mucosal plugs are formed in the trachea, and infiltration of mucosa takes place by activation of eosinophils and T lymphocytes (Mo
The inflammation spreads effectively from trachea to
onchioles mainly affecting the
onchi. The major cells responsible for swelling are macrophages, eosinophills, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, dendrite cells and mast cells. The initial phase of asthma involves release of granules by mast cells, vasodilation, constriction of
ochioles, and enhanced permeability (Doeing,2013).
Asthma can be caused by environmental as well as genetic reasons. Certain genes cause asthma and transmit the disease from parents to offspring. Therefore, a family having history of asthma in older people may have greater susceptibility to asthma in future generations. The genetic reason is profound to be a major cause of asthma in children below 12 years of age. Low level of hygiene and exposure to viruses and bacteria may adversely affect the number of immune cells in the body. Generally old age people get asthma due to environmental reasons (Muglia & Oppenheimer,2017).
Precautions for Asthma include reducing the exposure to allergens, smoke and dust. Treatment involves medicines like corticosteroids, leukotriene antagonists,
onchodilators, antibiotics and beta-adrenoceptor agonists. They dilate the
onchiolar walls and relax the smooth muscles (Mo
is, 2017).
The impact of inflammation results into damage, loss and dysfunctioning of epithelium, fi
osis of epithelial layer, and hyperplasia.
Source: https:
Clinical Diagnosis of Zachy’s Asthma
The clinical manifestations of Zachy shows clear indication of Bronchiolitis or Asthma that is a normal lung infection with
onchiolar inflammation in children (Sullivan et al,2016). It is mainly caused by viral infection generally but in Zachy’s case, asthma appears to be caused by genetic factors and family history of susceptibility to infection. Zachy is vigilant and active without any drowsiness. His clinical manifestations report moderate to acute Asthma attacks along with URTI or Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Other pathological reports also show running nose, obstruction of trachea and infection in
onchioles, resulting in chest congestion and trouble in
eathing (Sullivan et al,2016).
Pathophysiology of Zachy’s Asthma
Zachy has a family history of asthmatic symptoms. In Zachy’s family, her two elder siblings have a genetic probability of repeated infections known as Atopy. His sister is having Hay fever and his
other is allergic to peanuts. The Hayfever occurs due to prolonged exposure to dust and mud through the air. The symptoms of Hay fever involve swelling in eyes, with running nose (American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology,2014). His mother is a smoker and it is highly possible that during prenatal development, Zachy might be exposed to consistent cigarette smoke. Therefore, he is largely expected to inherit asthma genetically (Burney, Jarvis & Padilla, 2015).
Zachy shows a high level of WOB that is high work of
eathing. It means that his respiratory system works more extensively to gain normal
eathing air (Coates & Kowalchik, 2013). It is because of constricted and na
ow airways. His RR or Respiratory Rate is 37, which is greater than 27 (standard respiratory rate of normal 6-year-old child).
Recessions of Intercostal and subcostal muscles indicates that the normal airway path is being obstructed and there is a reduced pressure in his lungs (Newell & Darling, 2014). It occurs when the trachea,
onchi and
onchioles are partially blocked. Zachy also has complaints of Stridor in his clinical report. Stridor is a loud sound with high pitch generally audible without a stethoscope. It is occurs due to long term obstruction of larynx or trachea. The condition is clinically known as Laryngomalacia (Gupta et al, 2014).
Zachy has no fever. It shows the infection is not severe enough. The dispersed wheezing signifies that there is an effective amount of
onchiolar obstruction stopping the smooth passage of respiratory air....

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