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Assessment Three - Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Research. No introduction No conclusion To enable you to meet learning outcomes 1 and 3 . Submission date: CONSULT YOUR CLASS TIMETABLE Word...

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Assessment Three - Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Research.

No introduction

No conclusion

To enable you to meet learning outcomes 1 and 3.

Submission date: CONSULT YOUR CLASS TIMETABLE

Word length: 2000 words (maximum +10%)

(This assignment accounts for 50% of the total module mark)

OVERALL ASSESSMENT TITLE

Critically appraise the concepts of trustworthiness and rigour and their importance in qualitative research. Further relate these concepts to the processes of sampling, data collection, data analysis and presentation within the study below.

Do not include an introduction or conclusion to the assignment or any of the four parts. This is not an essay but a critical research appraisal.

Use appropriate references from research textbooks to support your discussion for all four parts of the assignment.

Part a) of this assessment (25%) should be an objective discussion of the importance of both trustworthiness and rigour and how these apply to qualitative research. Here you should start by defining each concept before going on to discuss the components of these in relation to the quality of qualitative research. It may be helpful to have one section on each of the concepts. This section is not related to the research study you have to read.

There are then another three parts in the assessment e.g.

b) sampling method,

c) data collection method,

d) data analysis and presentation methods

Each section must discuss how the methods outlined above have been utilised in the following study and how these can potentially affect the quality of this study.

Bramley, L. and Matiti, m XXXXXXXXXXHow does it really feel to be in my shoes? Patients’ experiences of compassion within nursing care and their perceptions of developing compassionate nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing. Vol. 23, pp XXXXXXXXXX.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263156/pdf/jocn XXXXXXXXXXpdf

This is a free access paper so no login will be required to retrieve it.

Qualitative Research Appraisal Guidance

Do not include an introduction or conclusion to any of these three parts. This is not an essay but a critical research appraisal.

Part a) Trustworthiness and Rigour 25 marks (approx. 500 words)

· Define both the concepts of trustworthiness and rigour and identify and discuss their specific components.

· Why is it important to address issues of rigour and trustworthiness in qualitative research?

This section requires you to provide a discussion of the concepts of trustworthiness and rigour in relation to the quality of a qualitative research approach and should not relate to the paper to be appraised.

Parts b), c) and d) Appraisal of a Qualitative Research Article

When reading the article you need to pay attention specifically to aspects of the article that relate to the three areas that you are asked to appraise in the guidance below.

Do not write up a full research appraisal but focus your discussion on the areas identified in the assignment question (sampling method, data collection method, data analysis and presentation method). Use the following questions (taken from the CASP Appraisal tool which is presented to you in the qualitative research unit of the module) to help you decide how you are going to complete Assignment 3. Please note that ethical issues in CASP are questioned separately. Here we have suggested you appraise ethical conduct in relation to the sampling and data collection methods.

You must take a critical approach to your discussion and discuss the strengths and limitations of the research methods used in the three areas of the study to be appraised. Avoid the temptation to simply list answers to the questions on the appraisal checklist. You should also avoid repeating back to the reader what the study did or what the authors have told us. You need to develop a critical discussion to show how the overall trustworthiness and rigour of the study could be affected by the methods used in the study.

Critically appraise each of the following three areas in relation to the research study cited above: Use references to current research literature to support the appraisal.

Part b) Sample Selection 25 marks (approx. 500 words)

Consider the following as a guide:

· Was the method of sampling identified –did you have to guess?

· What method of sampling was chosen (e.g. purposive, convenience sampling)?

· How was access to the sample negotiated?

· Have the researchers explained exactly how the participants for the sample were selected?

· Have they explained why the participants they selected were the most appropriate to provide the type of knowledge sought by the study?

· Are there any other issues around recruitment (e.g. why some people chose not to take part)

· Have the characteristics of the participants in the sample been defined?

· Is the sample size adequate for the particular research methodology being used?

· Was ethical approval sought?

· Are there sufficient details of how the research was explained to participants for the reader to assess whether ethical standards were maintained?

The above list is for guidance only – please do not simply answer each of the questions as not every study will cover all these issues. Remember the points raised about the sampling approach need to be related back to how they have the potential to affect the trustworthiness and rigour of the study and its results.

Part c) Data Collection 25 marks (approx. 500 words)

Consider the following as a guide:

· Is it clear how data was collected (e.g. focus group, interview etc.) and how was it recorded (e.g. audiotapes, observations, diary)?

· Have the researchers justified the methods chosen to collect data? Is the approach appropriate?

· Have the methods used for data collection been described in enough detail (e.g. is there an indication of how and where interviews were conducted)? What is the potential influence on participants?

· If methods were modified during the study, have the researchers explained how and why?

· Were the methods used reliable and independently verifiable (e.g. audiotapes, field notes)?

· If relevant, have the researchers discussed saturation of data (not all qualitative studies need to use this method)?

· Have the researchers critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence (reflexivity)?

· Is it clear how ethical considerations such as confidentiality and anonymity were addressed?

The above list is for guidance only - please do not simply answer each of the questions as not every study will discuss all these issues. Remember the points raised about the data collection need to be related back to how they have the potential to affect the trustworthiness and rigour of the study and its results.

Part d) Data Analysis and Presentation of Results 25 marks (approx. 500 words)

Please remember there are two parts here - you need to discuss both the analysis and presentation of the results.

Consider the following as a guide:

· What methods did the researchers use to analyse the data?

· Is it clearly described, step by step and easy to follow?

· If categories/themes were used, is it clear how they were derived from the data collected?

· Did more than one researcher perform the analysis and how did they address differences of interpretation?

· Have excerpts from the data been used to support the discussion?

· Is it possible to determine the source of data presented in quotations in the text (e.g. by numbering of extracts)?

· Are sufficient data presented to support the findings?

· Are the explanations presented clearly and are they plausible and coherent?

The above list is for guidance only - please do not simply answer each of the questions as not every study will discuss all these issues. Remember the points raised about the data analysis AND sampling need to be related back to how they have the potential to affect the trustworthiness and rigour of the study and its results.

The assessment will be marked using the following rubric.

MARKING RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT 3 - QUALITATIVE APPRAISAL.

Marking Criteria

Grade A1

(90-100%)

Exceptional

Grade A2

(80-89%)

Outstanding

Grade A3

(70-79%)

Excellent

Grade B1

XXXXXXXXXX%)

Very good

Grade B2

XXXXXXXXXX%)

Good

Grade C

(40 – 49%)

Satisfactory

Grade D

(30 – 39%)

Unsatisfactory

Grade E

(0 - 29%)

Very unsatisfactory

Trustworthiness and rigour: 25%

Demonstrates an understanding of trustworthiness and rigor and its importance in qualitative research.

Shows exceptional understanding of the importance of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research

Shows outstanding understanding of the importance of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research

Shows excellent understanding of the importance of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research

Shows very good understanding of the importance of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research.

Shows good understanding of the importance of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research.

Very descriptive in approach to discussing the importance of trustworthiness and rigor in qualitative research.

Shows limited understanding of the importance of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research.

Shows little or no understanding of the concepts of trustworthiness and rigor within qualitative research.

Sample selection: 25%

Critically discusses the process of sample selection, identifying the main strengths and weaknesses in the approach used.

Shows exceptional ability to critically appraise the process of sample selection. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows outstanding ability to critically appraise the process of sample selection. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows excellent ability to critically appraise the process of sample selection. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows very good ability to critically appraise the process of sample selection. Discusses many of the strengths and weaknesses within the study.

Shows good ability to appraise the process of sample selection.

Some of the main strengths and weaknesses are identified and discussed.

More descriptive than analytical in appraising the process of sample selection. Strengths and weaknesses are discussed at a fairly superficial level.

Shows limited ability to discuss or appraise the process of sample selection. Strengths and weaknesses have not been identified or discussed in sufficient detail.

Shows little or no ability to critically analyse the sampling process. The main strengths and weaknesses have not been identified or discussed in sufficient detail.

Data Collection: 25%

Critically discusses the methods used for data collection including analysis of the main strengths and weaknesses in the approach used.

Shows exceptional ability to critically appraise the process of data collection. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows outstanding ability to critically appraise the process of data collection. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows excellent ability to critically appraise the process of data collection. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows very good ability to critically appraise the process of data collection. Discusses many of the strengths and weaknesses within the study.

Shows good ability to appraise the process of data collection. Some of the strengths and weaknesses are identified and discussed.

More descriptive than analytical in appraising the process of data collection. Strengths and weaknesses are discussed at a fairly superficial level.

Shows limited ability to discuss or appraise the process of data collection. Strengths and weaknesses have not been identified or discussed in sufficient detail.

Shows little or no ability to discuss or appraise the process of data collection. The main strengths and weaknesses have not been identified or discussed in sufficient detail.

Data Analysis and Presentation of Results: 25%

Provides a comprehensive discussion of how data was analysed and presented, which includes the main strengths and weaknesses in the approach used.

Shows exceptional ability to critically discuss the process of data analysis and presentation of results. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows outstanding ability to critically discuss the process of data analysis and presentation of results. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows excellent ability to critically discuss the process of data analysis and presentation of results. The main strengths and weaknesses are comprehensively discussed.

Shows very good ability to critically appraise the process of data analysis and presentation of results. Discusses many of the strengths and weaknesses within the study.

Shows good ability to appraise the process of data analysis and presentation of results. Some of the strengths and weaknesses are identified and discussed

More descriptive than analytical in appraising the process of data analysis and presentation of results. Strengths and weaknesses are discussed at a fairly superficial level.

Shows limited ability to discuss or appraise the process of data analysis and presentation of results. Strengths and weaknesses have not been identified or discussed in sufficient detail.

Shows little or no ability to discuss or appraise the process of data analysis and presentation of results.

The main strengths and weaknesses have not been identified or discussed in sufficient detail.


Answered Same Day May 27, 2020

Solution

Soumi answered on Jun 02 2020
159 Votes
ASSESSMENT THREE - CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Table of Contents
Part a) Trustworthiness and Rigour    3
Part b) Sample Selection    4
Part c) Data Collection    5
Part d) Data Analysis and Presentation of Results    6
References    8
Part a) Trustworthiness and Rigou
The approach to the research can be different based on the researcher’s choice, which can be qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative study has the perfect trustworthiness due to the statistical data and the perfect terms of figures. However, in case of qualitative study, there is a problem of being trustable on the paper, as it does not have such parameters with matrices about the reliability and the validity of data. Hence, it is a challenge to those qualitative researchers to justify their study as transferable, dependable, credible and confirmable. According to Hadi and Closs (2016), trustworthiness is the establishment of these four tools, which are necessary to make a paper acceptable further as the research is ultimately evaluated by readers, peers and the reviewers.
Credibility is the confidence of the research where sometimes the researchers use for the triangulation to build the confidence over their research. Confirmability is a degree of the neutrality of the studies and the findings, which is based on the response of participants that is neither a personal motivation nor a potential bias. This ensures that the researcher is not biased with the interpretation that the participant of the research said to make more logical the na
ation. This helps the research to establish their confirmability on the research by portray of accurate response of participants. As per the view of Leung (2015), dependability is the repetition of the study by other researchers where the findings should be consistent. Hence, the first researcher should input a vast idea of the topic of the paper otherwise, it will not be judged by other researchers. At last, the transferability is the process of demonstration by a qualitative researcher as the findings can be applicable to any context. The other context can be the same situation or it can be the same population as well as it is similar phenomena.
A qualitative research generally uses an inquiry audit to establish the dependability and to take the different view of others. This also helps to increase the dependability on the paper. In this case, a peer or a colleague is needed to review and judge the paper, sometimes they are also required to comment on the paper if any improvement required of any mistake to change in their research. The objective is that it helps to confirm that the findings can be taken further by other researchers as well as it is consistent. As defined by Mills, Wand and Fraser (2015), rigour in the research is a set of criteria that poses the objective of establishing the strength of the research and it is being open to data that reveals the philosophical perspective as well as the thoroughness of the data. The qualitative researcher may use a wide description, which ultimately shows the studies of the research findings, which can be applicable to the other context of study. Hence, to accept a paper by others, the paper should have the trustworthiness and rigour on the paper and the author should find the validation of these two.
Part b) Sample Selection
The sampling method was properly identified in the study and it was not to be guessed anyhow. The sampling method chosen for the case study was purposive method that was recruited within six medical wards that were specializing in the medicine for respiratory issues, endocrinology, and healthcare for aged people and stroke of the NHS university hospitals in East Midlands and United Kingdom. As reported by Kowitlawakul et al. (2015) the implemented method is a useful one because in is sampling method a non-probability method of sampling which can be selected on the basic of characteristics of a specific population as well as objective of particular study. It can also be defined as selective, subjective as well as judgmental methods of sampling. The participants for this study aged taken within 18 to 91, which includes both male and female.
The capable patients were chosen just after being discharged within 24 hours maximum though they were effervescent to participate in the study. Bramley and Matiti (2014) did not choose few participant lacked the capability to participate as they were impatient and they were not well enough to accommodate with the 4 to 10 days of staying. There was also an exception for a patient who was taken to stay for eight weeks. The authors have approached an interpretive approach to make a more...
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