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Assessment Task 1 – Case StudyDescription: Please refer to the NRSG257 “Assessment” and “Additional Unit Resources” on the National LEO page for more comprehensive information on this assessment...

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Assessment Task 1 – Case StudyDescription: Please refer to the NRSG257 “Assessment” and “Additional Unit Resources” on the National LEO page for more comprehensive information on this assessment task.Due date: Sunday 8th April at 2359 hours.Weighting: 40%Length and/or format: 1600-word academic essayPurpose: This assessment task will allow students to demonstrate their critical thinking and reasoning, as well as their research skills. Students will also demonstrate how evidence based information can be implemented into contemporary Australian Nursing practice.Learning outcomes assessed: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, & 9How to submit: Submit the essay through Turnitin in LEO Assessment Task One in your campus tile. Please review the upload box to ensure that you have submitted the correct assignment. Allow at least one day to review Turnitin submissions for similarity and consider re-submitting.Please note: Email is not an appropriate submission mode for this assessment item.Return of assignment: Grades and feedback will be made available through the method indicated by the lecturer in charge, according to ACU policy three (3) weeks after submission.Assessment criteria: The rubric for this assessment is outlined in full below. The essay is aimed at critically evaluating the research explored related to a chosen case study presented. This essay requires use and evaluation of evidence-based sources when caring for children, adolescents and their families in relation to current Australian nursing practice.Version: ModeratedINSTRUCTIONS: Choose one (1) of the case studies below. Your Assessment will be written in academic essay format with an introduction, body and conclusion according to APA Guidelines. Using evidence specific to your chosen case study, address the following two (2) points: 1. Describe the pathophysiology of the presenting complaint in the case study XXXXXXXXXXwords) 2. Evaluation of the nurse’s role to deliver developmentally appropriate nursing care in relation to your chosen case study. Address: • growth and developmental theories, • family centred care and, • the effects of hospitalisation of the child, on the child and family XXXXXXXXXXwords) Case Study 1Anne is a 10 year old girl who has presented to the emergency department in the local hospital with right iliac fossa pain. On further assessment by the emergency registrar, appendicitis is suspected. The surgical team agree that the signs and symptoms are associated with appendicitis and take Anne to theatre for an appendectomy. The handover on return to the ward is that the surgical team found a gangrenous perforated appendix with peritonitis. Anne has returned to the ward with a nasogastric tube in situ on free drainage, morphine PCA, IV therapy and triple IV antibiotics. Due to the severity of the infection and the potential complications, Anne will need to remain in hospital for 10 days of IV antibiotics and pain management. Anne is the oldest of five children and her parents own and run an Indian restaurant in the city.Case Study 2Jay is a four-month old boy admitted to the paediatric unit via emergency with vomiting, decreased feeds, no bowel actions and intermittent spasmodic abdominal pains. During the spasmodic pain episodes, Jay draws his legs up and has a high pitched cry. After a diagnostic ultrasound, intussusception was thought to be the cause of the presenting symptoms and Jay was admitted to the ward. His treatment plan included observation, electrolyte monitoring and IV therapy until a contrast enema could be implemented to correct the intussusception. The approximate length of stay for Jay will be 2 days, during which time, Jay’s mother is informed that the rotavirus vaccine that Jay had at 4 months has increased the incidence of this condition amongst infants. Jay’s mother is now having serious doubts regarding future vaccines for Jay.Case Study 3Sue is a 14-year-old indigenous girl who lives in a remote community in rural Australia. Sue has been treated for repeated episodes of streptococcal pharyngitis and impetigo over the last 2 years. The local health clinic have registered Sue and her siblings for a secondary prophylaxis program where she receives Benzathine Penicillin G IM routinely to aid in reducing risk of developing ARF/ RHD. However, Sue has failed to attend the clinic on multiple occasions to receive her IM antibiotics. Sue has presented to the remote area health clinic complaining of a 4 day history of acute joint pain in her knees, ankles, elbows and shoulders. A health history taken by the remote area nurse on arrival reveals that Sue reports having a sore throat 23 weeks ago, migratory joint pain starting with her knees and ankles and which now includes other joints. Her temperature is 38oC. When Sue is assessed by the remote clinic medical officer, a diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic Fever is suspected. The doctor at the clinic attending to Sue informs her mother that she needs to be transferred to a hospital for cardiology review and echocardiogram. The closest hospital that provides these services is 800km away. Sue lives with her mother and 6 younger brothers and sisters.Marking Criteria & Allocated marks 0 (No attempt made) NN Pathophysiology Content LO 3 GA 8 15%0 marks No pathophysiology of presenting complaint discussed0-7.25 marks Understanding of the pathophysiology of the presenting complaint in the scenario is poorly demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks Has demonstrated satisfactory understanding and descriptors of the pathophysiology of the presenting complaint in the chosen scenario XXXXXXXXXXmarks Has demonstrated clear scientific principles and pathophysiology of the presenting complaint in the scenario XXXXXXXXXXmarks Has demonstrated a high level descriptor of the scientific principles and pathophysiology of the presenting complaint in the scenario XXXXXXXXXXmarks Has demonstrated an advanced, clear and concise cellular level descriptor of the scientific principles and pathophysiology of the presenting complaint in the scenario.Growth and development Content LO2 GA6 15%0 marks Growth and development not discussed0-7.25 marks Understanding of the relevant growth and development principles related to the scenario is poorly demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A satisfactory understanding of the relevant growth and development principles related to the scenario is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A clear descriptor of the relevant growth and development principles related to the scenario is critically discussed and demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A high level descriptor and applicability of the relevant growth and development principles related to the scenario is critically discussed and demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks Exceptionally clear and concise descriptor and applicability of the relevant growth and development principles related to the scenario is critically discussed and demonstrated.Family-centred care Content LO1 GA6 15%0 marks No evidence of familycentred care discussed0-7.25 marks Understanding of the relevance of familycentred care in a paediatric setting is poorly demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A satisfactory understanding of the principles of familycentred care and its importance in a paediatric setting is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A clear and defined understanding of the principles of family-centred care and its importance in a paediatric setting is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A clear, defined and critical descriptor of the principles of family-centred care and its importance and applicability in a paediatric setting is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks An advanced, clear, defined and critical descriptor of the principles of family-centred care and its importance and applicability in a paediatric setting is demonstrated.Hospitalised child and family Content LO1 LO7 GA615%0 marks No reference made to hospitalised child and family0-7.25 marks Understanding of the effects of hospitalisation on the child and family unit is poorly demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A satisfactory understanding of the effects of hospitalisation on the child and family unit is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A clear and defined understanding of the effects of hospitalisation on the child and family unit is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks A clear, defined and critical descriptor of the effects of hospitalisation on the child and family unit and applicability in a paediatric setting is demonstrated XXXXXXXXXXmarks An advanced, clear, defined and critical descriptor of the effects of hospitalisation on the child and family unit and applicability in a paediatric setting is demonstrated.Critical thinking, analysis and synthesis of evidence LO1 LO2 LO3 GA 8 GA9 30%0 marks No evidence of critical thinking, analysis or synthesis0- 14 marks The essay summarises the research and does not evaluate the information. The discussion presented is heavily biased and no clear argument presented or arguments made are not supported by any evidence XXXXXXXXXXmarks The essay summarises the research with some evaluation of the information noted. The discussion presented is somewhat biased. Some arguments presented but few are supported by any evidence XXXXXXXXXXmarks The essay demonstrates a sound critical thinking and evaluation of some of the research. The discussion is somewhat biased. Clear arguments are presented and supported by appropriate evidence XXXXXXXXXXmarks The essay demonstrates breadth of reading and important critical thinking and evaluation of the research. Important discussion points are evident. Arguments are supported by evidence based articles and sources XXXXXXXXXXmarks The essay demonstrates breadth of reading and considerable depth of critical thinking and evaluation of the research. All arguments are supported by higher order evidence based articles and sources.Version: ModeratedPresentation GA8 10%0 marks There is no evidence of APA referencing style.0 – 4.5 marks Mostly appropriate professional nondiscriminatory language; Absent/inaccurate and inconsistent citing of sources within text and reference list; referencing style inconsistently applied and inaccurate; poor communication of ideas with frequent spelling and grammatical errors; overuse of direct quotes; not within required word limit.5 – 6.4 marks Used appropriate professional nondiscriminatory language; correctly cited most sources both within the text and reference list; used either APA or Harvard referencing style with occasional errors; expressed most ideas clearly with occasional spelling and grammatical error; used inappropriate or frequent direct quotes; kept to / struggled with word limit.6.5 – 7.5 marks Used appropriate professional nondiscriminatory language; correctly cited most sources both within the text and reference list; used either APA or Harvard referencing style with minimal errors; expressed most ideas clearly with minimal spelling and grammatical error; rarely/not used direct quotes; kept to word limit6.5 – 7.4 marks Used appropriate professional nondiscriminatory language; correctly cited all sources both within the text and reference list; consistently and correctly used either APA or Harvard referencing style; expressed ideas reasonably clearly, concisely and fluently with minimal spelling and grammatical error; rarely/not used direct quotes; kept to word limit. .7.5 – 10 marks Used appropriate professional non-discriminatory language; correctly cited all sources both within the text and reference list; consistently and correctly used either APA or Harvard referencing style; expressed ideas clearly, concisely and fluently with correct spelling and grammar; rarely/not used direct quotes; kept to word limit.TOTAL /100 40% of TOTAL GRADE Comments: -Assessor: - **If more detailed feedback on this assessment item is required, students should book an appointment with the relevant marker or the Lecturer in Charge.
Answered Same Day Mar 19, 2020 NRSG 257

Solution

Soumi answered on Mar 25 2020
131 Votes
Running Head: CASE STUDY 3        1
CASE STUDY 3        6
ASSESSMENT TASK 1 – CASE STUDY
(CHOSEN CASE STUDY = CASE STUDY 3)
Table of Contents
Pathophysiology of Acute Rheumatic Fever in Sue    3
Evaluating the role of the nurse in delivering suitable developmental nursing care for Sue    5
1. Developmental and Growth Theories    5
2. Family Centred Care    6
3. Effects of Hospitalisation of Sue on her and her Family    6
References    8
Pathophysiology of Acute Rheumatic Fever in Sue
In the cu
ent case study, Sue is a girl, aged 14 years, belonging to the Aboriginal population of Australia. She was diagnosed with Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF). ARF is occu
ed to an individual due to being infected by Streptococcus pharyngitis (Strep bacteria). Even though its pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood, disease development occurs after 2 weeks of Strep infection. ARF manifestation occurs in patients with genetic susceptibility upon Strep infection, wherein immune cells get activated by presentation of S. pharyngitis antigens to T and B cells (Sika-Paotonu, Beaton, Raghu, Steer & Carapetis, 2017). Thus, production of particular IgM, IgG and activation of CD4+ T are initiated.
As structural similarity is found between Strep bacteria and the human, protein cross activations of antibodies transpire against human protein. This immune cross-reactivity leads to tissue injury followed by clinical symptoms such as rheumatic fever, carditis that occurs due to infiltration of T cells and antibody binding, transient arthritis by immune complexes formation, neurological disorder such as chorea develops by the binding of antibodies to basal ganglia in the
ain and some skin ailment by the effect of delayed hypersensitive reaction (Yacoub, Mayosi, ElGuindy, Carpentier & Yusuf, 2017).
Figure 1: Infection
(Source: Carapetis et al., 2016, 15084)
As discussed in Lewis rat model, there is a clear evidence of molecular mimicry seen in the development of carditis in patients with strep infection as both T and B cells cross reactivity triggers the immune responses. As stated by Carapetis et al. (2016), the tissue injury that takes place in rheumatic fever occurs due to the molecular mimicry, in which the T-cell and B-cell mediated immune responses of the patient are not able to discriminate between the host tissues and the attacking bacteria. 
The antigenic structure of S. Pharyngitis contains helical protein with N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine that shared the epitope with myosin. Further, it is also seen that antibodies against both these proteins cross-react with human tissue. Monoclonal antibodies derived from peripheral blood of patients showed cross-reactivity with myosin. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies generated against myosin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine isolates cross-react with tissue in the human heart valve of patients with rheumatic fever (Gandhi, Krishnamoorthy, Motal & Yacoub, 2017).
Patient’s autoreactive T cells work against cardiac tissues, including myosin and valve-derived proteins causing granulomatous inflammation in cardiac valves. The adherence of CD4+ T cells to the endothelium leads to subsequent infiltration of antibodies into the valve releasing γ -IFN. As informed by He et al. (2016), inflammation occurs followed by neovascularization further allowing infiltration of T-cells. T-cells respond against other cardiac proteins such as vimentin and tropomyosin, directs the formation of granulomatous lesions underneath the endocardium. As ARF is polygenic several immune coding genes are in association with ARF susceptibility.
Figure 2: Mechanism
(Source: He et al., 2016, 115)
Evaluating the role of the nurse in delivering suitable developmental nursing care for Sue
1. Developmental and Growth Theories
Growth is the physical change that happens with aspect ratio of height and weight, together with physical, hormonal, behavioural as well as mental changes, the development is said to be complete (Gewitz et al., 2015). In this case, Sue is mostly ignorant about her bodily changes and health. As explained by Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks, in middle childhood an individual tries to build health consciousness. However, in the present case study the Sue is not health conscious proved by the repeated incidence of bacterial infection. According to Havighurst’s bio-psychosocial model of development, as stated by Cardozo, Gonzalez, Feitosa, Pessoa and Rivera (2017), a person’s individual biology is influenced by...
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