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1. TOPIC: Overdose deaths involving opioids is an alarming national epidemic that is completely preventable and is responsible for the recent decrease in the United States’ life expectancy. The number...

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1. TOPIC: Overdose deaths involving opioids is an alarming national epidemic that is completely preventable and is responsible for the recent decrease in the United States’ life expectancy. The number of overdose deaths involving opioids in UNITED STATES is very high and the problem is worsening in recent years.

RUBRIC

Module 2:

Defining the Problem

· Why is this problem important to you? What do you see clinically or what have you experienced personally that makes this work meaningful?

· Explore the data that supports the problem at a local, state and national level

· Note any disparities based on race, socio-economic status, location, gender

· Apply the ‘5-whys’ to dig deeper at the underlying causes of the problem

· Explore the data related to the underlying problems for your specifically defined population

· Clearly define the population you want to explore in a one sentence statement of need

Module 3:

Financial Solutions

· How much money is this problem costing the health care system?

· Are there financial reasons for this being a problem?

· What are financial solutions that might solve the problem?

· Are there solutions within the health care delivery system that can address this problem?

· What is a cost-effective way to address the problem?

Module 4:

Interventions

· What does the evidence show that has been effective in solving the problem?

· Create a logic model that connects the (4) interventions to a long term impact (reference your 5-whys)

· Find 4 interventions that are evidence-based or best practices that come from the community health resources we discussed in this module

· Identify at least 2 community agencies or programs that are working on this problem

· What one solution do you think will work best for your specific identified population?

· How would you define success when implementing this intervention?

Module 5:

Policy and Public Health

· Identify two (2) policies that have impacted your problem – either contributed to the problem, or has helped to alleviate the problem

· Identify one (1) policy that is being discussed currently (this past year) that would impact the problem

· Discuss one thing you can do in the next 6 months that would support or refute this policy

A BREAKDOWN SUMMARY OF ALL THE SECTIONS THAT SHOULD BE INCLUDDED IN THE PAPER

What is the problem, and why should it be studied?

The first step is to define clearly theprimary problemto be addressed. Next, articulate why it is important and how the knowledge or evidence derived from the trial will contribute to addressing one or more health problems. Many proposals fail because too many questions are being asked and the proposal is unfocused.

· This section should be drawn from your needs assessment, and the 5-why’s to narrow down the focus. Summarize the most important data points that tell the story of why you are focusing on what you are focusing on, and how this will impact the bigger problem.

2. What information is already available?

A good, but brief,literature reviewof what has already been done in the research area is an important element of any grant proposal. It demonstrates that the applicant has looked at the relevant publications to identify gaps and opportunities in the field on which the study is based. Wherever possible, past work should be summarized in the form of a systematic review. This stage should also include a review of any relevant registered trials that have not yet been completed.

· This section should be drawn from your evidence-based interventions. What is in the literature that is shown to be effective? And how can that evidence be applied to your target audience. Beyond the evidence base, what best practices have been published that show promise for your target population?

· Solutions should include programmatic and policy interventions.

3. What are the objectives of the research/intervention?

The next step is to formulate the aims and specific objectives of the intervention planned. These vary, according to the nature of the study. In more complex studies, it may be necessary to articulate a general aim, followed by a list of specific objectives, some of which may include sub-objectives. Sometimes, several sequential steps may need to occur. In vaccine studies, for example, the immune status of the target population may need to be assessed first to select the target group for vaccination, and, before that, immunological assays may need to be developed, or tested and evaluated in the specific target population for the trial.

· Based on the evidence-based interventions that address your narrow need, what specifically might you intend to do? Remember that objectives should be SMART

4. How will relevant information be collected and analyzed?

The study design and evaluation plan is a major component of a intervention or research trial. Whether it should be placebo-controlled, double-blind, stratified, cluster randomized, etc. depends on many factors. Most importantly, it is important to state what would define success for the intervention, and this success will be measured.

A complex evaluation plan is beyond the scope of our course. However, in an actual grant application or research study, the evaluation plan must be detailed. The data to be collected and how they will be analyzed must be described. If any of the data are to be from a sample of trial participants, the sampling technique needs to be explained and justified. Describe how the data will be processed and what statistical tests will be used in the analysis. Discuss any ethical, legal, and social issues that could arise from the specimen or data collection, storage, and dissemination.

· How will you define success? What data will need to be collected?

1. TOPIC: Overdose deaths involving opioids is an alarming national epidemic that is completely preventable and is responsible for the recent decrease in the United States’ life expectancy. The number of overdose deaths involving opioids in UNITED STATES is very high and the problem is worsening in recent years.

RUBRIC

Module 2:

Defining the Problem

· Why is this problem important to you? What do you see clinically or what have you experienced personally that makes this work meaningful?

· Explore the data that supports the problem at a local, state and national level

· Note any disparities based on race, socio-economic status, location, gender

· Apply the ‘5-whys’ to dig deeper at the underlying causes of the problem

· Explore the data related to the underlying problems for your specifically defined population

· Clearly define the population you want to explore in a one sentence statement of need

Module 3:

Financial Solutions

· How much money is this problem costing the health care system?

· Are there financial reasons for this being a problem?

· What are financial solutions that might solve the problem?

· Are there solutions within the health care delivery system that can address this problem?

· What is a cost-effective way to address the problem?

Module 4:

Interventions

· What does the evidence show that has been effective in solving the problem?

· Create a logic model that connects the (4) interventions to a long term impact (reference your 5-whys)

· Find 4 interventions that are evidence-based or best practices that come from the community health resources we discussed in this module

· Identify at least 2 community agencies or programs that are working on this problem

· What one solution do you think will work best for your specific identified population?

· How would you define success when implementing this intervention?

Module 5:

Policy and Public Health

· Identify two (2) policies that have impacted your problem – either contributed to the problem, or has helped to alleviate the problem

· Identify one (1) policy that is being discussed currently (this past year) that would impact the problem

· Discuss one thing you can do in the next 6 months that would support or refute this policy

A BREAKDOWN SUMMARY OF ALL THE SECTIONS THAT SHOULD BE INCLUDDED IN THE PAPER

What is the problem, and why should it be studied?

The first step is to define clearly theprimary problemto be addressed. Next, articulate why it is important and how the knowledge or evidence derived from the trial will contribute to addressing one or more health problems. Many proposals fail because too many questions are being asked and the proposal is unfocused.

· This section should be drawn from your needs assessment, and the 5-why’s to narrow down the focus. Summarize the most important data points that tell the story of why you are focusing on what you are focusing on, and how this will impact the bigger problem.

2. What information is already available?

A good, but brief,literature reviewof what has already been done in the research area is an important element of any grant proposal. It demonstrates that the applicant has looked at the relevant publications to identify gaps and opportunities in the field on which the study is based. Wherever possible, past work should be summarized in the form of a systematic review. This stage should also include a review of any relevant registered trials that have not yet been completed.

· This section should be drawn from your evidence-based interventions. What is in the literature that is shown to be effective? And how can that evidence be applied to your target audience. Beyond the evidence base, what best practices have been published that show promise for your target population?

· Solutions should include programmatic and policy interventions.

3. What are the objectives of the research/intervention?

The next step is to formulate the aims and specific objectives of the intervention planned. These vary, according to the nature of the study. In more complex studies, it may be necessary to articulate a general aim, followed by a list of specific objectives, some of which may include sub-objectives. Sometimes, several sequential steps may need to occur. In vaccine studies, for example, the immune status of the target population may need to be assessed first to select the target group for vaccination, and, before that, immunological assays may need to be developed, or tested and evaluated in the specific target population for the trial.

· Based on the evidence-based interventions that address your narrow need, what specifically might you intend to do? Remember that objectives should be SMART

4. How will relevant information be collected and analyzed?

The study design and evaluation plan is a major component of a intervention or research trial. Whether it should be placebo-controlled, double-blind, stratified, cluster randomized, etc. depends on many factors. Most importantly, it is important to state what would define success for the intervention, and this success will be measured.

A complex evaluation plan is beyond the scope of our course. However, in an actual grant application or research study, the evaluation plan must be detailed. The data to be collected and how they will be analyzed must be described. If any of the data are to be from a sample of trial participants, the sampling technique needs to be explained and justified. Describe how the data will be processed and what statistical tests will be used in the analysis. Discuss any ethical, legal, and social issues that could arise from the specimen or data collection, storage, and dissemination.

· How will you define success? What data will need to be collected?

Answered Same Day Jun 08, 2021

Solution

Sunabh answered on Jun 17 2021
150 Votes
Running Head: HEALTHCARE        1
HEALTHCARE        12
HEALTHCARE
(Overdose Deaths Involving Opioids)
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction    3
1.1 Description of the Problem and Rationale behind Study    3
1.2 History of Opioids in Healthcare and Rationale behind Study    4
2.0 Literature Review Study Problem    4
2.1 Opioid Overdose is Majorly Facilitated by Prescription Drugs    5
2.2 Opioid Overdose and Decreasing Life Expectancy in U.S    5
3.0 Objectives of Research and Intervention    7
4.0 Process to be Followed for Data Collection and Analysis    8
4.1 Type of Investigation    8
4.2 Data Collection Methods    8
5.0 Conclusion    10
References    11
1.0 Introduction
Opioids are essential drugs, which were discovered for medicinal and other recreational purposes. However, with the prolonged use of these drugs, opioids were no longer restricted or limited to be used only for medicinal purposes. Cu
ently, the data reflects that individuals die every year due to overdose or misuse of these drugs. Opioid overdose related deaths were reported to be one of the major preventable causes of deaths in the U.S.
In spite of the restrictions as well as policy making related to the use and farming of opioids, cases related to opioids related death have not reflected any decline. Therefore, this report will discuss the issues associated with opioids misuse and how it is affecting the life expectancy rate in U.S. Likewise, efforts would be made to collect and represent the available information on this concern along with research objectives and interventions to be addressed on this report. Further, efforts would be made to present the effective data collection and analysis methods.
1.1 Description of the Problem and Rationale behind Study
    According to the data presented by National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than 128 individuals die every day because of overdosing on opioids. It would be essential to consider that this misuse does not only include the use of drugs but also include medicines as well as opioids formulations prepared for recreational purposes (HHS, 2020). Misuse and addiction to opioids in any form such as prescription pain relievers, synthetic opioids, heroin, fentanyl and much more are considered as a serious national crises affecting public health and increasing the burden on healthcare.
Further, it is evident from the data provided by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, the total economic burden of prescription opioid misuse within nation have been estimated around $78.5 billion a year. This include the increasing cost of healthcare, addiction to the treatment, lost productivity of individuals suffering from overdose, increased criminal justice involvement and much more.
1.2 History of Opioids in Healthcare and Rationale behind Study
It would be essential to consider that the use of opioids or legalization of the use of opioids was done in 1990s when most of the pharmaceutical companies reassured medical community as well as the authorities regarding the health benefits of opioids. It was also reassured by the companies that the patients would not become addict to the prescription painkillers and medications provided to them. As a result of this reassurance, medical professionals began prescribing opioid drugs at much higher rates and later it was discovered that these medications could be highly addictive.
The rate, at which opioid overdose began to increase, it became difficult for the authorities as well as the healthcare industry to control the increasing rate opioid overdose. The data published by NIH (2020) presented that in 2017, more than 47,000 Americans died and the only cause behind these deaths was opioid overdose. Further, it was also reported that in 2017 itself, 1.7 million people suffered from substance abuse disorders in U.S and most of them were related to prescription opioid pain relievers while 652,000 individuals were reported to suffer from heroin use disorder. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) declared a public health emergency in 2017 and presented a 5-Point Strategy in order to combat the opioid crises.
2.0 Literature Review Study Problem
    As evident from the above presented evidences, the reassurance provided by pharmaceutical companies did not prove to be effective in controlling the opioid addiction. Increased prescription of opioid medication from healthcare professionals was then held responsible for the widespread as well as misuse of both prescription and non-prescription opioids. According to the data presented by Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), more than 42,000 deaths were reported due to opioid overdose in 2016, which was more than the number recorded on previous records.
Likewise, the records also presented that 40% of opioid overdose deaths were resultant from prescription opioid. Cu
ently the records from healthcare industry as well as pharmaceutical industries along with the data presented by NIH reflect that more than 21-29% of patients in U.S are prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Despite of the initial prescription, which was made to treat the medical condition, they misuse the drugs and 8-12% of these individuals have been reported to develop opioid use disorder.
2.1 Opioid Overdose is Majorly Facilitated by Prescription Drugs
    Further, Dowell et al. (2017) presented that out of all the patients that are prescribed with opioids for treatment for recreational purposes they develop addiction even when the diseased conditions cures. Likewise, 4 to 6% of these patients seek transition towards a higher dose opioid in order to experience...
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