Assignment Question 1: In January 2014 Technicalities Ltd., a labour hire company, hired Marion, an office worker. She was re-entering the workforce after being a full-time mother at home for two years. Technicalities placed her with a client, Innovative Storage. IS had Marion work for them regularly throughout the year, and again in early 2015. Marion also worked for other firms when she could fit it in. Technicalities reported that IS was satisfied with her work in May 2015 when they told her they would continue to need her for full time hours of work until further notice, and she worked for them until December 2015.When she started work for Technicalities Marion registered an Australian Business Number, as required by them. Technicalities said this was so they could pay her a flat hourly rate for all of the hours she worked and not offend any laws about penalty rates. She did not take daily work instructions from Technicalities; she accepted these directions from IS. Marion does not get paid when she takes sick leave or carers leave. She always wore the IS uniform while at work and was receiving training in an accounts system on Friday afternoons at IS until December 2015. Marion made her own superannuation contributions and taxation payments. IS told Marion when her hours of work were, what her duties were and with whom she would be working.In late November Marion had an accident at work. She slipped and fell down some stairs while carrying office equipment. A spill had occurred the day before, and although the cleaner had mopped up the oil, there was a residual coating on the stairs. Marion injured her back, shoulder and left arm. She took a couple of weeks off work and asked IS to pay her medical expenses. They were reimbursed in full. Marion continues to have a sore back and shoulder. In early December 2015, Marion saw a job advertisement online. It was for an office worker at IS. She applied in writing but did not succeed in her application. Marion was not sure why she missed out and was not advised that the position advertised would make her continued services obsolete. The following week and after making inquiries of IS management she was informed that Techniclaities would pay her for two weeks in lieu of notice. Marion has not received any further work allocations from Technicalities.
(a) Is Marion an employee or another type of worker?
(b) Assuming Marion is an employee, who is Marion’s employer, Technicalities or IS?
(c) Assuming Marion is an employee, has Marion’s employer breached any contractual duty owed to her?
Assignment Question 2: Anna used to earn $150000 per annum, paid fortnightly. As a photographer, she worked with Max, producer and director of Creative Juices Pty. Ltd. Creative Juices began operation in 1996 with only Max and Anna, and saw $2 million gross profit last year. Anna enjoyed taking on jobs that challenged her to produce innovative television advertisements. She and Max had been friends since University and had developed an exciting work relationship involving Max’s production of her visual expertise. With the growth of the company, they started working separately most of the time, but would meet frequently to discuss the income and expenditure of the company, and also to agree on Anna’s income increases, taxation contribution rates and insurance premiums. Max usually followed Anna’s advice on money matters, although he had to sign all formal documentation as the director of the company. No contract was ever written concerning Anna’s work with Max.In July Anna had an argument with Max over his refusal to pay her for meals and travel expenses incurred while she was working. Max had previously deposited a lump sum of $500 at the end of each month which Anna thought was to cover these expenses. Max said the payment was a bonus for good work, not a reimbursement. In response Anna refused to travel far for work and only completed jobs that were local. She did this for about a month and then decided she would travel for work again, regardless. In August, when she was on an assignment in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Anna fell over her tripod and down a mountainside, injuring her back. She was not wearing climbing boots or a safety helmet and her injury was not minimised by their protection. There were no work policies on wearing safety equipment although Max had often reminded Anna to be careful, especially when she was trekking. Anna had to cancel the photo shoot at the time, and, while she has attempted short assignments since, has not been able to maintain a full time load of work. Anna has continued to receive her regular income since then, despite taking considerable amounts of time off to recover from her injury. Anna takes anti-inflammatory prescription drugs and has to see a physiotherapist twice a week to lessen her back pain. Max has understood Anna’s intermittent absence at work is because of recurrent back pain. However, he recently asked Anna if she thought that they could meet to discuss the future of their working together. In the discussion that followed, Max got tense and advised Anna he no longer want to work with her, offering her 4 weeks’ notice paid in lieu. Anna considers 4 weeks is grossly inadequate and is concerned about her income loss for the future.
(a)Discuss whether or not Anna is an employee.
(b)Assuming Anna is an employee, does her employer have to pay her for the period she refused to travel for work?
(c)Assuming Anna is an employee, discuss whether Max has breached any contractual duty in relation to her injury.